陳韋安 主編 2016年7月出版 / HK$80
SEARCHING FOR PEACE IN A WORLD RIDDLED WITH CONFLICTS
君特‧湯瑪斯 Günter Thomas
The essay places itself in three simultaneous contexts: (1) in the reality of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, (2) in the political situation after the cold war and the German history, and (3) in the context of a “Zeitgeist” characterized by the strong undercurrents of vitalism, a stoic acceptance of tragedy and an overstretching of both reason and redemption.
Against this background the essay sketches out the strengths and weaknesses of the just war theory, of the concept of just peace and of religious pacifism. In a next step it explores the role of national state for the work of peace in the sphere of civil society. For the Church’s active engagement for peace it calls attention to the Pauline trials of faith, love, and hope – i.e. for dealing with haunting and conflict generating pasts.
The essay eventually argues for a theological and moral realism. In view of the reality of the risen Christ, there is no just war. At the same time, even the pacifist cannot escape becoming guilty. Beyond the dualistic alternative of right and wrong, justified war and righteous pacifism and in a world reconciled with God but not yet fully redeemed the Christian Churches search for peace. Christians are facing the challenge of using military force in order to keep at bay greater evil – even while they are still hoping for the transforming and redeeming power of God’s spirit.
SACRIFICE, RELIGION AND NATION
Essentials for Peace-building in the Age of Terror
小原克博 Katsuhiro Kohara
"Sacrifice" is one of the keywords that require serious consideration when discussing specific aspects of war and peace, because the concept of sacrifice has often been used to raise nationalism and justify war. The act of dying for some noble cause is sometimes regarded as justifiable. In fact, people who died for their country during war were praised for their noble sacrifices. Similarly, people who die for God are praised as martyrs. The logic in praising death for some noble mission is embraced by both nations and religions, and this commonality has often led to the combination of nationalism and religion. In other words, religions can serve to complement the logic of sacrifice required by a nation. To address such a logic of sacrifice, pacifism should be more substantial than mere idealism. Pacifists must calmly analyze the logic behind a great many sacrifices during wartime and start to take action based on the lessons learned from history, including offering apologies and reconciliation. In this paper, I will discuss the relationship among nations, religions and war, centering on the keyword of "sacrifice." I will also examine idolatry as a logic used to justify sacrifice, and offer perspectives we should adopt to achieve peace.
WAR AND PEACE
Interpretation of the Fight between Israelites and Amalekites and the Bronze Serpent in Mishnah
曹腓利 Philip Y. Cao
As the most important oral tradition, Mishnah is not only playing as the liturgical orders which are carried out in normal lives by the Jewish people, but also emphasizing on the attitude to God and standpoint of ethical issues. In Mishnah Rosh Hashanah 3.8, the event, which was from Exodus 17:9-13, about when Moses arose his hands on the mount, the Israelites overcame Amalekites, was interrelated and interpreted with the event, which was from Numbers 21:4-9 about when Israelites were wandering in the desert and bitten by the venomous snakes, but the peoples were saved by looking upon the bronze snake hung up on the pole. Therefore, the interrelated interpretation in RH 3.8 inspired the Israelites to understand the proper attitude to God; furthermore, it provided them a unique view to deal with the ethical issue-war and peace. This is the main point of what this article is seeking to explore.
RIVE OUT THE SEVEN NATIONS
A Theological Interpretation of the Holy War Tradition in the Old Testament
高銘謙 Ko Ming-him
This paper offers a theological interpretation for Deuteronomy 7:1-8, and contends that the commandment of driving out the seven nations should be interpreted within the theological framework of "one Lord" (Deut 6:4-5). We should employ a metaphorical approach in interpreting the commandment of Deuteronomy 7:1-8, and conclude that the theological conviction of "one Lord" should occupy the heart of Israelites, so that the idols in one's heart must be eradicated at any cost. First, I offer a brief literature review on this subject matter. Second, I elucidate the literary position of Deuteronomy 7:1-6 within the Deuteronomistic framework, pointing out that metaphorical approach should be the best way to interpret the text. Finally, I contend that Israelites, being the people of covenant, should exercise the Shema and the requirement of Deuteronomy 7:1-8, rooting out the idols in their hearts, so that they can worship Yahweh as the Holy One.
"SURRENDER" OR "BETRAYAL"?
Reading Jeremiah and Josephus in Defeat
張雲開 Paul W. Cheung
Jeremiah and Josephus are compared for their responses to the threat of imperial military annihilation of their own people. Although both surrendered to the enemies and urged his compatriots to capitulate, Jewish posterity regards them very differently. This paper looks at the reasons they gave for surrendering and the consequences of their surrender, with some suggestions as to why Jeremiah is considered a patriot while Josephus a traitor by Jewish posterity.
VIOLENT LANGUAGE AND NON-VIOLENT RESISTANCE IN THE BOOK OF REVELATION
辛惠蘭 Joyce W. Sun
This essay starts from the genre and the overall purpose of the Book of Revelation to investigate the rhetorical purpose of its apparently violent languages and images. The effects and influence of these languages on the readers will then be analyzed from the common theological perspectives shared by the author and his readers.
The essay argues that by employing these subversive imagery and language, the purpose of the Book of Revelation is to provoke the readers to understand the surrounding political reality through alternative lens. It is hoped that the readers will give up what seems to be politically and economically advantageous at the moment so as to maintain their faithful witnesses and to uphold their ultimate allegiance to God. The hope for final judgment and revenge on enemies, as evinced in the Book, is no more than an expression of the vision for the final removal of evil, fulfillment of justice and revelation of God’s sovereignty. While evil meets its end, God’s mercy and love, as well as His goodwill and purpose for the world to achieve true peace can also be seen.
While human beings generally rely on violence and might to achieve their own goals, the Book of Revelation perceives Christians as an alternative community conquering through obedience and self-sacrifice basing on the example of Jesus on the Cross.
THPLOUGHSHARES AND SWORDS
The Ethics of War in the Early Christian Church
陳禮裕 Tan Loe Joo
本專文乃探討早期基督教教會對戰爭所持的態度，特別是君士坦丁時代之前的這段時期。此時期的看法日後被奧古斯丁（Augustine）倡導的正義戰爭（Just War）理論的卓越發展所取代，但本身仍具有其神學思想的價值。專文旨在發掘早期教會對軍事參與的回應的先行根源，尤其考慮到此一回應乃發生於「國家」的現代概念尚未成形以前。許多學者都聲稱儘管早期教會承認戰爭的合法性，但他們大體上均以非戰主義（pacifism）回應軍事參與，並堅決反對各種形式的軍國主義。本文將根據前尼西亞教父的作品，主張他們反對主要的理由大多出於牧養和倫理上的考量過於神學上的論說，而且當時整個情景是比一般所呈現的更為複雜與微妙的。雖然教父沒有嘗試為評價戰爭提出一個完整的神學和倫理架構——這任務日後將由安波羅修（Ambrose）與奧古斯丁加以承擔——早期的基督徒如特土良（Tertullian）、俄利根（Origen）、亞歷山大的革利免（Clement of Alexandria）、希玻律陀（Hippolytus）、拉克坦提烏斯（Lactantius）等誠然展示了以當時代處境為考量的形形色色的觀點，對我們今天的時代或也有所啟發。
The paper examines the attitudes of the early Christian church towards war, particularly in the pre-Constantinian age that was later superseded by the distinct development of Augustine’s Just War theory. It seeks to uncover the antecedent roots of the church’s response to war especially its attitudes to Christians joining the Roman army, taking into context that this took place before the modern concept of the state was developed. Most scholars have asserted that the early church registered a largely pacifist response and opposed militarism in all its forms even though it recognized the legitimacy of war. It will be argued, based on the writings of the Ante-Nicene church Fathers, that while their main reasons were not so much theological but rather pastoral and ethical, the picture is more complex and nuanced then has usually been presented. While the Fathers did not attempt to present a complete framework for the assessment of wars and Christians joining the army – a task that Ambrose and Augustine would undertake later – the early Christians, such as Tertullian, Origen, Clement of Rome, Hippolytus, and Lactantius, did display a diversity of views that took into account the circumstances of their day, and which may be instructive in our own times.
THY KINGDOM COME
A Comparison of Eschatological-Political Ethics between Stanley Hauerwas and Karl Barth as a Theological Construction of Widerstandstheologie in Hong Kong
陳韋安 John W. Chan
巴特在尚未出版的《教會教義學》（Kirchliche Dogmatik）第四冊第四部分（後來修訂成為《基督徒生活》［Das Christliche Leben］一書）以主禱文的第三句「願你的國度降臨」展示一套教會政治神學的倫理—— 教會的禱告與抗爭行動並沒有相衝突，反而是在終末的角度下被視為不可分割的事情。在政治倫理的課題上，侯活士（Stanley Hauerwas）在2007年出版的寫作《馬太福音神學詮釋》中，同樣提及「願你的國度降臨」在政治倫理上關聯，並且在其他著作上建構出一套獨有的教會政治倫理。本文在「願你的國度降臨」這禱告—行動的框架上，比較巴特與侯活士政治倫理的差別，並嘗試找出兩位神學家在政治倫理在終末向度上的差異—— 上帝國度、上帝公義與人的國度、人的公義之間的張力如何在「願你的國度降臨」的禱告中被理解？筆者相信，正正基於兩者政治倫理的終末導向的不同，造成巴特與侯活士對教會抗爭立場上的不同。筆者更希望，這討論能夠有助當代香港教會抗爭神學（Widerstandstheologie）的建構。
Karl Barth's unpublished portion of Kirchliche Dogmatik, § 78 The Struggle for Human Righteousness, constructs a political ethics based on the third petition of the Lord's prayer "Thy kingdom come" — the prayer of the church and the action of resistance do not contradict, but should not viewed as one in an eschatological perspective. Stanley Hauerwas's Matthew wrote in 2007 also provides a political-ethical meaning for "Thy kingdom come," with which Hauerwas develops his own political ethics of the church. In this framework of the action-prayer relationship of "Thy kingdom come," this paper aims at comparing the difference of political ethics between Hauerwas and Barth — how should the tensions between the kingdom of God and humanity, the righteousness of God and humanity be understood in the prayer "Thy kingdom come"? I believe: the discrepancy of the standpoints between Hauerwas and Barth on "resistance" is based on of the eschatological difference of their political ethics — the clarification of this issue would help to construct and develop a Widerstandstheologie of Hong Kong.
KANTIAN THEOCRACY AS A NON-POLITICAL PATH TO THE POLITICS OF PEACE
Stephen R. Palmquist 龐思奮
Kant is well known as one of the founding fathers of modern liberal democracy: his political theory reaches its climax in the ground-breaking work, Perpetual Peace (1795), which sets out the basic framework for a world federation of states united by a system of international law. What is less well known is that two years earlier, in his Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (1793/1794), Kant had postulated a very different, explicitly religious path to the politics of peace: he presents the idea of an "ethical community" as a necessary requirement for humanity to become "satisfactory to God." While many recent scholars have noted the importance of Kant's concept of the ethical community, few recognize the force of his argument that such a community is possible only if it takes the form of a church; as a result, the precise status of his proposal remains unclear and under-appreciated. He argues in Division One, Section IV, of Religion's Third Piece that the idea of this community can become a reality only through a "church" that is characterized by four rational requirements: unity, integrity, freedom, and the changeability of all church rules except these four unchangeable marks. Prior to Section IV, Division One portrays this ethical community as having a political form, yet an essentially nonpolitical matter. Kant compares it with Jewish theocracy, but observes that the latter failed to be an ethical community because it was explicitly political. Whereas traditional theocracy replaces the political state of nature (which conforms to the maxim "might makes right") with an ethical state of nature (which conforms to the maxim that I call "should makes good"), or attempts to synthesize them, non-coercive theocracy transcends this distinction through a new perspective: it unites humanity in a common vision of a divine legislator whose only law is inward, binding church members together like families, through the law of love. Whereas the legal rights supported by democracy and a system of international law can go a long way to prepare for world peace, Kant's conviction is that it will be ultimately impossible without support from healthy religion.
康德是現代自由民主的創建者之一。他的政治理論在其富突破意義作品 Perpetual Peace (1795) 達致高峰。該作品展陳一個由多國組成的世界聯邦基本框架，這聯邦由一套國際法律系統所連合。在這作品面世前兩年，康德在其知名度略遜的 Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason (1793 / 1794) 一書，假設一條相當不同的明確宗教路徑，引向和平政治，提出一個「倫理社羣」的理念，作為人類達致「令神滿足」的所需條件。儘管不少新近學者留意到康德的倫理社羣概念的重要，但少宥曉得康德辯說的力量，就是只有採納教會的形式，才可構成這樣一個社羣。因此，康德提議的準確地位依然模糊，並且不容易讓人明白。康德在Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason 第三部第四段落第一主段辯說，只有透過具備四種理性條件——連合、一貫、自由，以及所有教會規條可以改變（除了這四個標誌外），倫理社羣的理念才得以實現。在第四段落之前，第一分段勾勒這個倫理社羣具有政治形式，可是，在基本上卻是非政治。康德把這個倫理社羣與猶太的神治，卻察覺後者未能成為倫理政體，蓋因其政治意味明確。傳統的神治以自然的倫理國度（從服筆者所稱的格言「應當令事情變得良善」）取代自然的政治國度（從服「或可令事情正確」格言），或嘗試整合兩者。非強制的神治透過新的向度，超越這區別﹕透過愛的律法，以神的立法者基本遠象，來結合人類。這位神的立法者的唯一法律，就是內聚連結彼此像家庭的教會成員。民主與國際法律系統所支持的合法權利，為準備世界和平，得走漫漫長路。康德的信念卻是，缺乏健康的宗教支持，終究沒可能作此準備。
THE TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSION OF THE SOUTH AFRICA
Faith and Psychological Perspectives
麥耀光 Joshua Y. Mak
In the eighties of the twentieth century, the South Africa adopted an apartheid policy which the white church had supported it. After being prisoned for 27 years, the leader of the anti-campaign, Nelson Mandela (1918 - 2013), was released in 1990. Mandela was the first elected president of the democratic election. During the transition of political power, Mandela set up The Truth and Reconciliation Commission for the purpose of healing national trauma.
Arch Bishop Tutu was appointed to direct the Commission. He had dual duties. On the one hand, Tutu needed to settle the historical problems; on the other hand, he had a task to bring reconciliation in the nation. He faced three options. However, he refused to follow the footstep of Nuremberg Trial or unconditional amnesty. He had chosen a third alternative.
This paper tries to look at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission from the faith and psychological perspectives. We need to examine key issues such as truth, justice, reconcile and forgiveness. The first part of the paper outlines briefly the South Africa’s apartheid policy. After surveys the aims and tasks of the Commission, we will look at several issues with comment.